Working with Boaters and Marine Trades for Cleaner Washington Water

Selected Literature on Copper Neurobehavioral Toxicity in Salmon

Jen McIntyre from the University of Washington compiled a series of citations that demonstrate what happens when copper comes into contact with all sorts of sea creatures. Most notably in one study, even a small amount of copper (10 parts per billion) has shown to distract coho salmon from swimming away from predators. To further investigate their research, with special attention to how copper affects salmon and other local fish populations, take a look at the scientific journal articles listed below. It is from these studies that the Department of Ecology uses when they create the Washington State Boatyard Permit, which every boatyard in Washington state must comply with if they are to stay in business.

Baldwin, D. H., J. F. Sandahl, J. S. Labenia & N. L. Scholz (2003). Sublethal effects of copper on coho salmon: Impacts on nonoverlapping receptor pathways in the peripheral olfactory nervous system. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22(10): 2266.

Baldwin, D. H., C. P. Tatara & N. L. Scholz (2011). Copper-induced olfactory toxicity in salmon and steelhead: Extrapolation across species and rearing environments. Aquatic Toxicology, 101(1): 295.

Hansen, J. A., J. D. Rose, R. A. Jenkins, K. G. Gerow & H. L. Bergman (1999). Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper: Neurophysiological and histological effects on the olfactory system. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(9): 1979.

Hansen, J. A., P. G. Welsh, J. Lipton, D. Cacela & A. D. Dailey (2002). Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposures of cadmium and zinc. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21(1): 67.

Hecht, S. A., D. H. Baldwin, C. A. Mebane, T. Hawkes, S. J. Gross & N. L. Scholz (2007). An overview of sensory effects on juvenile salmonids exposed to dissolved copper: Applying benchmark concentration approach to evaluate sublethal neurobehavioral toxicity.  U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo. 39 p., NMFS-NWFSC-83.

Jaensson, A. & K. H. Olsen (2010). Effects of copper on olfactory-mediated endocrine responses and reproductive behaviour in mature male brown trout Salmo trutta parr to conspecific females. Journal of Fish Biology, 76(4): 800.

Kennedy, C. J., P. Stecko, B. Truelson & D. Petkovich (2012). Dissolved organic carbon modulates the effects of copper on olfactory-mediated behaviors of chinook salmon. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31(10): 2281.

Labenia, J. S., D. H. Baldwin, B. L. French, J. W. Davis & N. L. Scholz (2007). Behavioral impairment and increased predation mortality in cutthroat trout exposed to carbaryl. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 329: 1.

McIntyre, J. K., D. H. Baldwin, D. A. Beauchamp & N. L. Scholz (2012). Low level copper exposure increases visibility and vulnerability of juvenile coho salmon to cutthroat trout predators. Ecological Applications, 22(5): 1460.

McIntyre, J. K., D. H. Baldwin, J. P. Meador & N. L. Scholz (2008a). Chemosensory deprivation in juvenile coho salmon exposed to dissolved copper under varying water chemistry conditions. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(4): 1352.

McIntyre, J. K., D. H. Baldwin, J. P. Meador & N. L. Scholz (2008b). Chemosensory deprivation in juvenile coho salmon exposed to dissolved copper under varying water chemistry conditions (vol 42, 1352, 2008). Environmental Science & Technology, 42(17): 6774.

Mebane, C. A. & D. L. Arthaud (2010). Extrapolating growth reductions in fish to changes in population extinction risks: Copper and Chinook salmon. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 16(5): 1026.

Meyer, J. S. & W. J. Adams (2010). Relationship between biotic ligand model-based water quality criteria and avoidance and olfactory responses to copper by fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29(9): 2096.

Sandahl, J. F., D. H. Baldwin, J. J. Jenkins & N. L. Scholz (2004). Odor-evoked field potentials as indicators of sublethal neurotoxicity in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to copper, chlorpyrifos, or esfenvalerate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61(3): 404.

Sandahl, J. F., G. Miyasaka, N. Koide & H. Ueda (2006). Olfactory inhibition and recovery in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) following copper exposure. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63(8): 1840.

Sommers, F., E. Mudrock, J. Labenia & D. Baldwin (2016). Effects of salinity on olfactory toxicity and behavioral responses of juvenile salmonids from copper. Aquatic Toxicology, 175: 260.

Tierney, K. B., P. S. Ross, H. E. Jarrard, K. R. Delaney & C. J. Kennedy (2006). Changes in juvenile coho salmon electro-olfactogram during and after short-term exposure to current-use pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(10): 2809.

Tilton, F., S. C. Tilton, T. K. Bammler, R. Beyer, F. Farin, P. L. Stapleton & E. P. Gallagher (2008). Transcriptional biomarkers and mechanisms of copper-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(24): 9404.